hubble telescope dates
Color images are created by combining separate monochrome images taken through different filters.  However, in case their cutting-edge technology ran into difficulties, NASA demanded that PE sub-contract to Kodak to construct a back-up mirror using traditional mirror-polishing techniques. The crew used cameras to survey the spacecraft before sending out astronauts to perform a variety of servicing tasks. Based on further refinements, we now think the universe is about 13.8 billion years old.
Gravitational lensing proves a vital tool for astronomers when measuring the dark matter distribution in massive clusters, since the mass distribution can be reconstructed from its gravitational effects. , Space-based astronomy had begun on a very small scale following World War II, as scientists made use of developments that had taken place in rocket technology. The Hubble Space Telescope celebrated its 20th anniversary in space on April 24, 2010. Credit: NASA. NASA’s first planet-hunting spacecraft continuously monitored a patch of space that contains 150,000 stars like the Sun for indications of Earth-sized planets from 2009 to 2013. Astronomers use Hubble Space Telescope observations to refine the Hubble constant, significantly narrowing down the age of the universe. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and is physically located in Baltimore, Maryland on the Homewood campus of Johns Hopkins University, one of the 39 U.S. universities and seven international affiliates that make up the AURA consortium. More than 2,000 images of the same field were taken with Hubble’s two premier cameras—the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3, which extends Hubble’s vision into near-infrared light—and combined to make the XDF. Credit: G. Bacon (STScI/AVL). Credit: NASA. , Eventually, following the resumption of shuttle flights in 1988, the launch of the telescope was scheduled for 1990. , The first step was a precise characterization of the error in the main mirror. , Optically, the HST is a Cassegrain reflector of Ritchey–Chrétien design, as are most large professional telescopes. , In August 2020, taking advantage of a total lunar eclipse, astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have detected Earth's own brand of sunscreen – ozone – in our atmosphere. The team, led by Dr. Mike Brown, planned to use Hubble and other telescopes to study additional Kuiper Belt objects that are almost as large as Pluto and Xena. But these snapshots also reveal that the disks are being "blowtorched" by a blistering flood of ultraviolet radiation from the region's brightest star, making planet formation extremely difficult.  Ultimately, in 2009, as part of Servicing Mission 4, the last servicing mission by the Space Shuttle, NASA installed the Soft Capture Mechanism (SCM), to enable deorbit by either a crewed or robotic mission. These insights result from Hubble's long lifetime on orbit, extensive instrumentation, and return of assemblies to the Earth where they can be studied in detail. The galaxies are seen as they were when the Universe was less than 4 percent of its present age. At that time ground-based telescopes were limited to resolutions of 0.5–1.0 arcseconds, compared to a theoretical diffraction-limited resolution of about 0.05 arcsec for a telescope with a mirror 2.5 m (8.2 ft) in diameter.
 The new gyroscope models were assembled using pressurized nitrogen and were expected to be much more reliable.
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